2. Definition of diversity and culture
3. Dimensions of culture
3.1. Universalism versus sectionalism
3.2. Collectivism versus individualism
3.3. Neutral versus emotional.
3.4. Diffuse versus specific
3.5. Effort versus prestige..
3.6. Sequential versus synchronous
3.7. Self-determined versus outward
4. Challenges and tools for manager
4.1. The dilemmas in cultural diversity management
4.2. Tools for managing workforce diversity
5. Real life example: Carlson Wagonlit Travel
6. The advantages of cultural diversity and diversity management
As business has become exclusively internationalized and globalized over the past years, the issue of workforce diversity has also gained more popularity. The complex and dynamic business environment requires interaction among people from diverse backgrounds and cultures. Competitive corporations cannot allow themselves losing talented and skillful employees due to discriminatory preferences or practices. The customer base has become more diverse as well and as service industries, tourism and hospitality are exposed even to a greater extent to the challenges of the heterogeneous labor market of the 21st century. In tourism industry the contact with the customers is vital, so corporations need to recruit employees who are able to understand and relate to the customers’ needs. The main purpose of managing diversity in business is to bring out the best of employees, in a non discriminatory, fair and just environment, for the benefit of the individuals as well as the prosperity of the whole company.
The futurist Jamais Cascio gives the main reasons why workforce diversity has become so important. These are the shift from manufacturing to a service economy, the globalization as well as the innovative business strategies and the increasing demand on teamwork. In addition there are the mergers and alliances acting on a high international level and of course the changing labor market conditions.1
2. Definition of Diversity and Culture
In general diversity is defined as “acknowledging, understanding, accepting, valuing, and celebrating differences among people with respect to age, class, ethnicity, gender, physical and mental ability, race, sexual orientation, spiritual practice, and public assistance status”.2 Due to the increased diverse nature of workforce in the contemporary tourism industry, managing heterogeneous employees has become an important competitive tool. Diversity could only be of a benefit to both companies and their employees when managed well. Although there are many management tools in this particular area, there is unfortunately no “cookbook approach”, and managing diversity remains an organizational challenge.
The private German foundation Bertelsmann Stiftung, which sees itself as a driver of social change, has conducted a survey on the topic of workforce diversity. The main objective of the survey is to assess the status of diversity management in German corporations and compare it on an international level to Europe, UK, USA and some other countries. The survey represents a standardized questionnaire in German and English, whose target group are top 600 of German companies and top 600 of international ones. The study was conducted between March and June 2007. The importance of the following diversity criteria to a company is ranked on a scale from 1 (no relevance) to 7 (highest relevance): age, disabilities, gender, culture, religion and sexual orientation. According to the chart in figure 1. Germany is obviously behind UK and USA concerning all criteria, though when it comes to differences in age, physical abilities, religion and sexual orientation the other European countries show less relevance than Germany. However, the most neglected differences among employees are their religion beliefs and the sexual orientation.
Although German corporations are not in the leading positions their progress in the area should still be recognized and hopefully continued.
Figure 1. How important is diversity for corporations3
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
This written paper focuses on the cultural differences among employees in tourism and hospitality, as managing across cultures has become an inseparable and a very important part of this industry. However, the term culture in its complexity could be quite confusing. A dictionary definition of culture incorporates many elements like history, common traits, geographical location, language, religion, race, hunting practices, music, agriculture etc. This makes culture and cultural differences very hard to define. Peter Brooks, an interdisciplinary scholar, tries to embrace the complexity of the term through an interesting analogy. Everyone knows what a tree is - it has some parts one sees immediately, like branches and leaves, and some parts which need a closer and deeper observation - these could be the birds’ nests, the bark with lichen on it and of course the life giving roots under the ground. This example shows that the most important aspects of culture, like the roots of a tree, are hardly recognizable at first.4 Thus, the meaning of culture should not be simplified.
When different cultures collide on the workplace this might have a great impact on the whole well-being of a company. Cultural awareness could therefore be very useful and even profitable for corporations. In a multicultural environment the employees’ cultural backgrounds would affect how they act, communicate, work in teams, determine their approach to time and task completion. The Germans for instance believe that the truth, even if unpleasant, will achieve a success, while English give priority to not “rocking the boat”. To Chinese, there is just no absolute truth.5 When greeting, Japanese only bow to each other, and could find it inappropriate to shake hands like their western colleagues do. Germans highly value time and punctuality, while Spanish often tend to be late. Religion beliefs could also contribute to cultural gaps between employees, e.g. the Muslim who has to pray 5 times a day and keep daily fasting during the month of Ramadan. These and numerous others are examples for cultural differences which people come across in the everyday business life.
3. Dimensions of Culture
The different relations between cultures are formed in seven different dimensions according to Fons Trompenaars, which is a worldwide acknowledged authority concerning intercultural management.6
3.1 Universalism versus sectionalism
For example you go by car with a really good friend and he runs into a food passenger with 50 km per hour even though only 30 were allowed. There are no witnesses. Would you keep it secret in court to protect him or not? Both North America and Europe would approach this problem almost exclusively universal and would not protect their friends in court. However Africa, Latin America and Asia would approach the problem sectional.
In universal cultures, rules are more important than relations. The contracts have to be observed strictly and only the people who follow the rules and the contract provide confidence. More over, there is only one truth and reality on which you have agreed. Business is Business. If you have to manage universal cultures:
- Do not consider the non personal flowers of speech “Let's keep at business” as impoliteness!
- Go after consequence and consistent work flows!
- Aspire at fairness by managing all similar cases equally!
In sectional cultures, relations are more important than rules are. Contracts have to be modifiable and only people who accept changes provide confidence. There are different perspectives of reality, concerning this of each partner. Further more, relations have to develop. If you have to manage sectional cultures:
- Do not consider individual flowers of speech “We have to get to know each other” as small talk!
- Create informal networks and create individual comprehension!
- Aspire at fairness, by handling all cases individually!
3.2 Collectivism versus individualism
In collective cultures, the delegates decide after consulting. Ideally, staff members do their work in groups with divided responsibility and staff members spend their holiday in groups or with family.
If you have to manage collective cultures like Egypt, Mexico, India or Japan:
- Praise the whole group and avoid to overpraise individuals!
- Remind your team of superior objectives, which apply to the whole group!
In individual cultures, the representatives decide immediately. Ideally, staff members work on their own and feel individual responsibility. Further more, staff members spend their holidays alone or with their partner. If you have to manage an individual cultures like Israel, Canada or the USA:
- Try to harmonize the individual needs with the must of the organization!
- Implement methods with individual incentives like Pay for Performance, or Management by Objectives!
- Praise particular performance and profit individually!
3.3 Neutral versus emotional
In neutral cultures, people do not want to uncover their thoughts and feelings. Their inner tension can be reflected in their attitudes or their faces. Physical contact, gesticulation or facial expression are often off-limits. If you have to manage neutral cultures like Ethiopia, Japan or Hong Kong:
- The absence of emotions does not mean that your partner is disinterested, but only that he tries to hide his strategy!
- The whole conference refer to the offer, not to you as individual!
- Avoid personal and expressive behavior which is incompatible with high status!
In emotional cultures, people uncover their feelings and thoughts and this creates transparency. A spirited behavior is admired and physical contact as well as facial expressions are the rule. If you have to manage an emotional cultures like Egypt, Spain, France or Russia:
- Enthusiasm, readiness to agree or vehement denegation do not mean that your partner has already taken a decision.
- The whole conference refer to you as individual and not to the topic or the offer. - Avoid factual and cold behavior, which is interpreted as disrespect and social alienation!
3.4 Diffuse versus specific
In America, people or friends avail themselves without asking of allowance to open your fridge, because here, it is a public area. In Germany it is a private area and it would be seen as impolite to use somebody else´s fridge without asking before. In the diffuse cultures, reputation and status of someone is integrated in a large dimension also in other areas of life. Partners take part both in their public and private areas. If you have to manage a diffuse oriented culture:
- Find out about the history, the background and the imagination of future of the diffuse culture!
- Pay attention to some ones title and his age no matter which topic it is about!
- Notice that private affairs have an impact on business affairs!
1 Arul, John: Managing Workface Diversity for Better Corporate Results
2 Green, Kelli A., Lopez, Mayra, Wysocki, Allen, and Kepner, Karl: Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges, and the Required Managerial Tools
3 Köppel, Petra: The Businesscase for Cultural Diversity - Creativity, Learning and Market Orientation p.7
4 Brooks, Peter: Cultural Intelligence: A guide how to working with people from other cultures
5 Lewis, Richard D., 1996, 1999: When cultures collide
6 Trompenaars, Fons: Handbuch globales managen pp. 49-198
Cultural tourism is the subset of tourism concerned with a traveler's engagement with a country or region's culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people in those geographical areas, the history of those people, their art, architecture, religion(s), and other elements that helped shape their way of life.
Cultural tourism includes tourism in urban areas, particularly historic or large cities and their cultural facilities such as museums and theatres. It can also include tourism in rural areas showcasing the traditions of indigenous cultural communities (i.e. festivals, rituals), and their values and lifestyle, as well as niches like industrial tourism and creative tourism.
It is generally agreed that cultural tourists spend substantially more than standard tourists do. This form of tourism is also becoming generally more popular throughout the world, and a recent OECD report has highlighted the role that cultural tourism can play in regional development in different world regions.
Cultural tourism has been defined as 'the movement of persons to cultural attractions away from their normal place of residence, with the intention to gather new information and experiences to satisfy their cultural needs'. These cultural needs can include the solidification of one's own cultural identity, by observing the exotic "others".
One type of cultural tourism destination is living cultural areas. Visiting any culture other than one's own such as traveling to a foreign country. Other destinations include historical sites, modern urban districts, "ethnic pockets" of town, fairs/festivals, theme parks, and natural ecosystems. It has been shown that cultural attractions and events are particularly strong magnets for tourism. The term cultural tourism is used for journeys that include visits to cultural resources, regardless of whether it is tangible or intangible cultural resources, and regardless of the primary motivation. In order to understand properly the concept of cultural tourism, it is necessary to know the definitions of a number terms such as, for example, culture, tourism, cultural economy, cultural and tourism potentials, cultural and tourist offer, and others.
As the issue of globalization takes place in this modern time, the challenge of preserving the few remaining cultural community around the world is becoming hard. In a tribal-based community, reaching economic advancement with minimal negative impacts is an essential objective to any destination planner. Since they are using the culture of the region as the main attraction, sustainable destination development of the area is vital for them to prevent the negative impacts (i.e., destroying the authentic identity of the tribal community) due to tourism.
Certainly, the principle of "one size fits all” doesn't apply to destination planning. The needs, expectations, and anticipated benefits from tourism vary greatly from one destination to another. This is clearly exemplified as local communities living in regions with tourism potential (destinations) develop a vision for what kind of tourism they want to facilitate, depending on issues and concerns they want to be settled or satisfied.
Destination planning resources
- Culture – the heart of development policy
It is important that the destination planner take into account the diverse definition of culture as the term is subjective. Satisfying tourists' interests such as landscapes, seascapes, art, nature, traditions, ways of life and other products associated to them -which may be categorized cultural in the broadest sense of the word, is a prime consideration as it marks the initial phase of the development of a cultural destination.
The quality of service and destination, which does not solely depend on the cultural heritage but more importantly to the cultural environment, can further be developed by setting controls and policies which shall govern the community and its stakeholders. It is therefore safe to say that the planner should be on the ball with the varying meaning of culture itself as this fuels the formulation of development policies that shall entail efficient planning and monitored growth (e.g. strict policy on the protection and preservation of the community).
- Local community, tourists, the destination and sustainable tourism
While satisfying tourists' interests and demands may be a top priority, it is also imperative to ruminate the subsystems of the destination's (residents). Development pressures should be anticipated and set to their minimum level so as to conserve the area's resources and prevent a saturation of the destination as to not abuse the product and the residents correspondingly. The plan should incorporate the locals to its gain by training and employing them and in the process encourage them to participate to the travel business. Travellers should be not only aware about the destination but also concern on how to help it sustain its character while broadening their travelling experience.
Research on tourism
International tourism changes the world. The Centre for Tourism and Cultural Change (CTCC) is leading internationally in approaching Tourism for critical research relating to the relationships between tourism, tourists and culture.
Sources of data
The core of a planner’s job is to design an appropriate planning process and facilitate community decision. Ample information which is a crucial requirement is contributed through various technical researches and analyzes. Here are some of the helpful tools commonly used by planners to aid them:
- Key Informant Interviews
- Libraries, Internet, and Survey Research
- Census and Statistical Analysis
- Spatial Analysis with Geographical Information System (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) technologies
Participating structures are primarily led by the government’s local authorities and the official tourism board or council, with the involvement of various NGOs, community and indigenous representatives, development organizations, and the academe of other countries.
Case study: mountainous regions of central Asia and in the Himalayas
Tourism is coming to the previously isolated mountainous regions of Central Asia, the Hindu Kush and the Himalayas. Closed for so many years to visitors from abroad, it now[when?] attracts a growing number of foreign tourists by its unique culture and natural beauty. However, while this influx of tourists is bringing economic opportunities and employment to local populations, helping to promote these little-known regions of the world, it has also brought challenges along with it: to ensure that it is well-managed and that its benefits are shared by all.
As a response to this concern, the Norwegian Government, as well as the UNESCO, organized an interdisciplinary project called the Development of Cultural and Ecotourism in the Mountainous Regions of Central Asia and the Himalayas project.[when?] It aims to establish links and promote cooperation between local communities, national and international NGOs, and tour agencies in order to heighten the role of the local community and involve them fully in the employment opportunities and income-generating activities that tourism can bring. Project activities include training local tour guides, producing high-quality craft items and promoting home-stays and bed-and-breakfast type accommodation.
As of now,[when?] the project is drawing on the expertise of international NGOs and tourism professionals in the seven participating countries, making a practical and positive contribution to alleviating poverty by helping local communities to draw the maximum benefit from their region's tourism potential, while protecting the environmental and cultural heritage of the region concerned.
- Bob McKercher and Hilary du Cros, Cultural Tourism: The partnership between tourism and cultural heritage management, Routledge, 2002.
- Greg Richards, Cultural Tourism: Global and local perspectives, Routledge, 2007.
- Priscilla Boniface, Managing Quality Cultural Tourism, Routledge, 1995.
- Milena Ivanovic, Cultural Tourism, Juta and Company Ltd, 2009.
- ^Hans Kung, Tracing the Way : Spiritual Dimensions of the World Religions, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2006, page 248
- ^Kairouan Capital of Political Power and Learning in the Ifriqiya (Muslim Heritage)
- ^OECD (2009) The Impact of Culture on Tourism. OECD, Paris
- ^Richards, G. (1996) Cultural Tourism in Europe. CABI, Wallingford. Available to download from www.tram-research.com/atlas
- ^Borowiecki, K.J. and C. Castiglione (2014). Cultural participation and tourism flows: An empirical investigation of Italian provinces. Tourism Economics, 20(2): 241-62.
- ^Demonja, Damir. "Cultural Tourism in Croatia after the Implementation of the Strategy of Development of Cultural Tourism"(PDF).
- ^Chalmers, William D. (2011). On the Origin of the Species Homo Touristicus: The Evolution of Travel from Greek Spas to Space Tourism. iUniverse. p. 291.