My poems—I should suppose everybody’s poems—are all set to trip the reader head foremost into the boundless. Ever since infancy I have had the habit of leaving my blocks carts chairs and such like ordinaries where people would be pretty sure to fall forward over them in the dark. Forward, you understand, and in the dark.
—Frost to Leonidas W. Payne Jr., November 1, 1927
“The Road Not Taken” has confused audiences literally from the beginning. In the spring of 1915, Robert Frost sent an envelope to English critic Edward Thomas that contained only one item: a draft of “The Road Not Taken,” under the title “Two Roads.” According to Frost biographer Lawrance Thompson, Frost had been inspired to write the poem by Thomas’s habit of regretting whatever path the pair took during their long walks in the countryside—an impulse that Frost equated with the romantic predisposition for “crying over what might have been.” Frost, Thompson writes, believed that his friend “would take the poem as a gentle joke and would protest, ‘Stop teasing me.’”
That wasn’t what occurred. Instead, Thomas sent Frost an admiring note in which it was evident that he had assumed the poem’s speaker was a version of Frost, and that the final line was meant to be read as generations of high school valedictorians have assumed. The sequence of their correspondence on the poem is a miniature version of the confusion “The Road Not Taken” would provoke in millions of subsequent readers:
(1) Frost sends the poem to Thomas, with no clarifying text, in March or April of 1915.
(2) Thomas responds shortly thereafter in a letter now evidently lost but referred to in later correspondence, calling the poem “staggering” but missing Frost’s intention.
(3) Frost responds in a letter (the date is unclear) to ask Thomas for further comment on the poem, hoping to hear that Thomas understood that I was at least in part addressing his own behavior.
(4) Thomas responds in a letter dated June 13, 1915, explaining that “the simple words and unemphatic rhythms were not such as I was accustomed to expect great things, things I like, from. It staggered me to think that perhaps I had always missed what made poetry poetry.” It’s still clear that Thomas doesn’t quite understand the poem’s stance or Frost’s “joke” at his expense.
(5) Frost writes back on June 26, 1915: “Methinkest thou strikest too hard in so small a matter. A tap would have settled my poem. I wonder if it was because you were trying too much out of regard for me that you failed to see that the sigh [in line 16] was a mock sigh, hypo-critical for the fun of the thing. I don’t suppose I was ever sorry for anything I ever did except by assumption to see how it would feel.”
(6) Thomas responds on July 11, 1915: “You have got me again over the Path not taken & no mistake…I doubt if you can get anyone to see the fun of the thing without showing them and advising them what kind of laugh they are to turn on.”
Edward Thomas was one of the keenest literary thinkers of his time, and the poem was meant to capture aspects of his own personality and past. Yet even Thomas needed explicit instructions—indeed, six entire letters—in order to appreciate the series of double games played in “The Road Not Taken.” That misperception galled Frost. As Thompson writes, Frost “could never bear to tell the truth about the failure of this lyric to perform as he intended it. Instead, he frequently told an idealized version of the story” in which, for instance, Thomas said, “What are you trying to do with me?” or “What are you doing with my character?” One can understand Frost’s unhappiness, considering that the poem was misunderstood by one of his own early biographers, Elizabeth Shepley Sergeant (“Thomas, all his life, lived on the deeply isolated, lonely and subjective ‘way less travelled by’ which Frost had chosen in youth”), and also by the eminent poet-critic Robert Graves, who came to the somewhat baffling conclusion that the poem had to do with Frost’s “agonized decision” not to enlist in the British army. (There is no evidence that Frost ever contemplated doing so, in agony or otherwise.) Lyrics that are especially lucid and accessible are sometimes described as “critic-proof”; “The Road Not Taken”—at least in its first few decades—came close to being reader-proof.
* * *
The difficulty with “The Road Not Taken” starts, appropriately enough, with its title. Recall the poem’s conclusion: “Two roads diverged in a wood, and I— / I took the one less traveled by, / And that has made all the difference.” These are not only the poem’s best-known lines, but the ones that capture what most readers take to be its central image: a lonely path that we take at great risk, possibly for great reward. So vivid is that image that many readers simply assume that the poem is called “The Road Less Traveled.” Search-engine data indicates that searches for “Frost” and “Road Less Traveled” (or “Travelled”) are extremely common, and even accomplished critics routinely refer to the poem by its most famous line. For example, in an otherwise penetrating essay on Frost’s ability to say two things at once, Kathryn Schulz, the book reviewer for New York magazine, mistakenly calls the poem “The Road Less Traveled” and then, in an irony Frost might have savored, describes it as “not-very-Frosty.”
Because the poem isn’t “The Road less Traveled.” It’s “The Road Not Taken.” And the road not taken, of course, is the road one didn’t take—which means that the title passes over the “less traveled” road the speaker claims to have followed in order to foreground the road he never tried. The title isn’t about what he did; it’s about what he didn’t do. Or is it? The more one thinks about it, the more difficult it becomes to be sure who is doing what and why. As the scholar Mark Richardson puts it:
Which road, after all, is the road “not taken”? Is it the one the spear takes, which, according to his last description of it, is “less travelled”—that is to say, not taken by others? Or does the title refer to the supposedly better-travelled road that the speaker himself fails to take? Precisely who is not doing the taking?
We know that Frost originally titled the poem “Two Roads,” so renaming it “The Road Not Taken” was a matter of deliberation, not whim. Frost wanted readers to ask the questions Richardson asks.
More than that, he wanted to juxtapose two visions—two possible poems, you might say—at the very beginning of his lyric. The first is the poem that readers think of as “The Road Less Traveled,” in which the speaker is quietly congratulating himself for taking an uncommon path (that is, a path not taken by others). The second is the parodic poem that Frost himself claimed to have originally had in mind, in which the dominant tone is one of self-dramatizing regret (for a path not taken by the speaker). These two potential poems revolve around each other, separating and overlapping like clouds in a way that leaves neither reading perfectly visible. If this is what Frost meant to do, then it’s reasonable to wonder if, as Thomas suggested, he may have outsmarted himself in addition to casual readers.
But this depends on what you think “The Road Not Taken” is trying to say. If you believe the poem is meant to take position on will, agency, the nature of choice, and so forth—as the majority of readers have assumed—then it can seem unsatisfying (at best “a kind of joke,” as Schulz puts it). But if you think of the poem not as stating various viewpoints but rather as performing them, setting them beside and against one another, then a very different reading emerges. Here it’s helpful, as is so often the case, to call upon a nineteenth-century logician. In The Elements of Logic, Richard Whateley describes the fallacy of substitution like so:
Two distinct objects may, by being dexterously presented, again and again in quick succession, to the mind of a cursory reader, be so associated together in his thoughts, as to be conceived capable…of being actually combined in practice. The fallacious belief thus induced bears a striking resemblance to the optical illusion effected by that ingenious and philosophical toy called the Thaumatrope; in which two objects painted on opposite sides of a card, for instance a man, and a horse, a bird, and a cage, are, by a quick rotatory motion, made to impress the eye in combination, so as to form one’s picture, of the man on the horse’s back, the bird in the cage, etc.
What is fallacious in an argument can be mesmerizing in a poem. “The Road Not Taken” acts as a kind of thaumatrope, rotating its two opposed visions so that they seem at times to merge. And that merging is produced not by a careful blending of the two—a union—but by “rapid and frequent transition,” as Whateley puts it. The title itself is a small but potent engine that drives us first toward one untaken road and then immediately back to the other, producing a vision in which we appear somehow on both roads, or neither.
* * *
That sense of movement is critical to the manner in which the poem unfolds. We are continually being “reset” as we move through the stanzas, with the poem pivoting from one reading to the other so quickly that it’s easy to miss the transitions. This is true even of its first line. Here’s how the poem begins:
Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveler, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the undergrowth…
The most significant word in the stanza—and perhaps the most overlooked yet essential word in the poem—is “roads.” Frost could, after all, have said “paths” or “trails” or “tracks” and conveyed nearly the same concept. Yet, as the scholar George Monteiro observes:
Frost seems to have deliberately chosen the word “roads.”…In fact, on one occasion when he was asked to recite his famous poem, “Two paths diverged in a yellow wood,” Frost reacted with such feeling—“Two roads!”—that the transcription of his reply made it necessary both to italicize the word “roads” and to follow it with an exclamation point. Frost recited the poem all right, but, as his friend remembered, “he didn’t let me get away with ‘two paths!’”
What is gained by “roads”? Primarily two things. First, a road, unlike a path, is necessarily man-made. Dante may have found his life similarly changed “in a dark wood,” but Frost takes things a step further by placing his speaker in a setting that combines the natural world with civilization—yes, the traveler is alone in a forest, but whichever way he goes, he follows a course built by other people, one that will be taken, in turn, by still other people long after he has passed. The act of choosing may be solitary, but the context in which it occurs is not. Second, as Wendell Berry puts it, a path differs from a road in that it “obeys the natural contours; such obstacles as it meets it goes around.” A road is an assertion of will, not an accommodation. So the speaker’s decision, when it comes, whatever it is, will be an act of will that can occur only within the bounds of another such act—a way of looking at the world that simultaneously undercuts and strengthens the idea of individual choice.
This doubled effect continues in the poem’s second and third lines, which summarize the dilemma around which “The Road Not Taken” is constructed: “And sorry I could not travel both / And be one traveler…” Frost often likes to use repetition and its cousin, redundancy, to suggest the complex contours of seemingly simple concepts. In this case, we have what seems like the most straightforward preposition imaginable: If a road forks, a single person can’t “travel both” branches. But the concept is oddly extended to include the observation that one can’t “travel both’ and “be one traveler,” which seems superfluous. After all, Frost might more easily and obviously have written the stanza like so (emphasis mine):
Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both
To where they ended, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the undergrowth…
What, then, is the difference between saying one can’t “travel both” roads and saying one can’t “travel both / And be one traveler”? And why does Frost think that difference worth preserving? One way to address these questions is to think about what the speaker is actually suggesting he’s “sorry’ about. He isn’t, for instance, sorry that he won’t see what’s at the end of each road. (If he were, it would make more sense to use the modified version above.) Rather, he’s sorry he lacks the capability to see what’s at the end of each road—he’s objecting not to the outcome of the principle that you can’t be two places at once, but to the principle itself. He’s resisting the idea of a universe in which his selfhood is limited, in part by being subject to choices. (Compare the case of a person who regrets that he can’t travel through time not because he wishes he could, say, attend the premiere of Hamlet, but simply because he wants to experience time travel.)
This assumes, of course, that the speaker regrets that he can’t travel both roads simultaneously. But what if he instead means that it would be impossible to “travel both / And be one traveler” even if he returned later to take the second road? As Robert Faggen puts it, the suggestion here is that “experience alters the traveler”: The act of choosing changes the person making the choice. This point will be quietly reinforced two stanzas later, when the speaker says that “knowing how way leads on to way, / I doubted if I should ever come back”—the doubt not only that he might return again to the same physical spot, but that he could return to the crossroads as the same person, the same “I,” who left it. This reading of the poem is subtly different from, and bolder than, the idea that existence is merely subject to the need to make decisions. If we can’t persist unchanged through any one choice, then every choice becomes a matter of existential significance—after all, we aren’t merely deciding to go left or right; we’re transforming our very selves. At the same time, however, if each choice changes the self, then at some point the “self” in question becomes nothing more than series of accumulated actions, many of them extremely minor. Frost’s peculiar addition—“and be one traveler”—consequently both elevates and reduces the idea of the chooser while at the same time both elevating and reducing the choice. The thaumatrope spins, the roads blur and merge.
From THE ROAD NOT TAKEN: Finding America in the Poem Everyone Loves and Almost Everyone Gets Wrong. Published by arrangement with The Penguin Press, a member of Penguin Group (USA), LLC. Copyright © 2015 by David Orr.
The Road Taken By Robert Frost
Robert Lee Frost, was one of America's leading 20th-century poets and a four-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize. An essentially pastoral poet often associated with rural New England, Frost wrote poems whose philosophical dimensions
transcend any region. Although his verse forms are traditional he often said, in a dig at archival Carl Sandburg, that he would as soon play tennis without a net as write free verse he was a pioneer in the interplay of rhythm and meter and in the poetic
se of the vocabulary and inflections of everyday speech. His poetry is thus both traditional and experimental, regional and universal ( Charles Alteri, 77).
Robert's father, William Prescot Frost Jr., was something of a drifter. He worked usually as a newspaperman and sometimes squandered his wages in a saloon and casino. Frost's mother, a schoolteacher, her professional training served her well when in 18
she fled San Francisco and her improvident husband for the first time. Packing two year old Robert with her, she crossed the Continent to William's parents house. There she gave birth to Robert's sister, Jeanie. Less than ten years later Frost's " My
tterfly," his first published poem appears in the Independent.
In 1912, at the age of 38, he sold the farm his father had passed to him and used the proceeds to take his family to England, where he could devote himself entirely to writing. His efforts to establish himself and his work were almost immediately succe
ful. A Boy's Will was accepted by a London publisher and brought out in 1913, followed a year later by North of Boston (Brocheim, 120). Favorable reviews on both sides of the Atlantic resulted in American publication of the books by Henry Holt and Comp
y, Frost's primary American publisher, and in the establishing of Frost's transatlantic reputation.
In 1916 Frost suffers great nervousness while addressing Boston Authors' Club in May, but feels more at ease when reading poems "Birches," "The Road Not Taken," and "The Sound of Trees" at Tufts College. Elinor, who was pregnant at the time had weak he
t, suffers a miscarriage. As early as 1916 Robert Frost told Louis Untermeyer that he had already passed through "several phases, four to be exact" as a poet and considered himself permanently shaped. He knew what it was he could do well. He intended t
go ahead and do it, and along the way make certain that everyone who counted knew what he was doing and appreciated him (Abrams, 235). " I have myself in a strong box where I can unfold as a personality at discretion."
During his most productive years as a poet, Robert Frost pursued his three careers simultaneously poet, farmer, and college professor and while he would not have traded any of them for the lot of anyone else on earth, he recognized that he did not re
ly fit in with the average practitioner of any of those vocations. He was a different breed. "Frost wrote poems whose philosophical dimension transcend any region"(Abrams, 237), yet the rhythms of New England, its land and people, were imprinted deeply
Frost's soul, and he saw in the most commonplace observations a metaphor for his own spiritual loneliness.
"The Road Not Taken" by Robert Frost, is a poem full of symbols, he uses nature images to get his point across. If the reader doesn't pay close attention to what he is reading, he might find it very easy to get confused. Robert Frost writes his poems
ike this, so that he can get the reader to think about life and what he is saying. This sense of his own inner divisions is perfectly reflected in his "The Road Not Taken." The poem's surface meaning is that we have choices in life, and our lives can tu
out completely differently depending on the options we choose. Frost himself notes that he wrote "The Road Not Taken," not with himself in mind, but a friend: "One stanza of 'The Road Not Taken' was written while I was sitting on a sofa in the middle o
England. . . . I wasn't thinking about myself there, but about a friend who had gone off to war, a person who, whichever road he went, would be sorry he didn't go the other. He was hard on himself that way". Later, Frost discovered his friend died durin
the war in Europe.
Everyone is a traveler, choosing the roads to follow on the map of their continuous journey, life. There is never a straight path that leaves one with but a sole direction in which to head. Regardless of the original message that Robert Frost had inten
d to convey, his poem, "The Road Not Taken", has left its readers with many different interpretations. It is one's past, present and the attitude with which he looks upon his future that determines the shade of the light that he will see the poem in. In
ny case however, this poem clearly demonstrates Frost's belief that it is the road that one chooses that makes him the man who he is (Houma, 92). Often in life, we are left to wonder what might have happened, what could have been, and how things would
ve turned out.. if only.. There are times when we are sure that those other choices might have led to unfound greatness but there are also moments when we feel as though we were indeed better off not having journeyed down such unsure paths. Nevertheless
that which we chose not to do is what perennially comprises part of our life's mystery it is the ultimate example of the unknown and perhaps the one that we spend the most time pondering.
In Robert Frost's "The Road Not Taken," the poet explores this very realm of uncertainty with a poetic curiosity that makes us indeed wonder what could have been. Frost's subject is more specifically narrowed down to a choice : the poet is faced with
wo roads, two ideas, and two possibilities of action. It is very possible that the road not taken will be the one longed for thereafter. The poem examines the choice between these two roads, and the results of the choice which the poet makes.
"And sorry I could not travel both..." It is always difficult to make a decision because it is impossible not to wonder about the opportunity cost, what will be missed out on. There is a strong sense of regret before the choice is even made and it l
s in the knowledge that in one lifetime, it is impossible to travel down every path. In an attempt to make a decision, the traveler "looks down one as far as I could". The road that will be chosen leads to the unknown, as does any choice in life. As muc
as he may strain his eyes to see as far the road stretches, eventually it surpasses his vision and he can never see where it is going to lead. It is the way that he chooses here that sets him off on his journey and decides where he is going.
"Then took the other, just as fair, and having perhaps the better claim." What made it have the better claim is that "it was grassy and wanted wear." It was something that was obviously not for everyone because it seemed that the majority of people too
the other path therefore he calls it "the road less traveled by" ( Leary, 75).The fact that the traveler took this path over the more popular, secure one indicates the type of personality he has, one that does not want to necessarily follow the crowd bu
do more of what has never been done, what is new and different.
"And both that morning equally lay in leaves no step had trodden black." The leaves had covered the ground and since the time they had fallen no one had yet to pass by on this road. Perhaps Frost does this because each time a person comes to the point
ere they have to make a choice, it is new to them, somewhere they have never been and they tend to feel as though no one else had ever been there either. "I kept them first for another day!" The desire to travel down both paths is expressed and is not u
sual, but "knowing how way leads on to way", the speaker of this poem realizes that the decision is not just a temporary one and he "doubted if I should ever come back." This is his common sense speaking and acknowledging that what he chooses now will a
ect every other choice he makes afterward. Once you have performed an act or spoken a word that crystallizes who you are, there is no turning back, it cannot be undone.
Once again at the end of the poem the regret hangs over the traveler like a heavy cloud about to burst. He realizes that at the end of his life, "somewhere ages and ages hence", he will have regrets about having never gone back and traveling down the r
ds he did not take. Yet he remains proud of his decision and he recognizes that it was this path that he chose that made him turn out the way and he did and live his life the way in which he lived. "I took the road less traveled by and that had made all
he difference." To this man, what was most important, what really made the difference, is that he did what he wanted, even if it meant taking the road less traveled. If he hadn't, he wouldn't be the same man he is now (Leary, 73).
In Frost's book, Mountain Interval, direct irony did not find a continued development toward a truly satirical verse form, although irony does occur through varied inderictions. The objective self teasing appears in the "The Road Not Taken," when the p
t knows he will tell " with a sigh" the old story of a choice which "made all th difference." Again irony flashes in those familiar lines of "Birches" Where it is hoped that the wish to get away from the earth may not ne granted too soon and too complet
y. It also becomes a focal point of the war poem, "Range Finding," when the spider whose web was disturbed by the death dealing bullet finds it to be of no importance. With sadness and pleasantry, irony threads its way through the Mountain Interval, as
had done in A Boy's Will, without becoming aggressive enough to be considered satire.
Throughout the piece, metaphor is the prevalent convention used by Robert Frost. Everything about the poem conveys metaphor. Frost used this literary tool to describe the choices people make throughout their lives. These choices, sometimes unalterab
, are the forks in the road of our life. He demonstrates the unalterable choices by writing, "Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back." We cannot tell where they will take us and
e cannot tell which is the better path. However, we take roads that completely define our lives. Frost conveyed these ideas to the reader through the metaphor of the diverging roads in the wood. The speaker mentions that he or she took the less trave
d road. This metaphor may suggest that Frost thought he had made a decision in life that was not the "normal" or mainstream decision for his time. Perhaps this could refer to his literary career, as opposed to his initial nonliterary career prior to h
move to England.
Many conventions were used by Robert Frost to create the poetic piece "The Road Not Taken." It is evident, however, that imagery, polyvalence and metaphor are the most prevalent. These three tools bring together the thread of Robert Frost's t
ughts into an extraordinary poem. The poem uses these conventions to convey a fundamental part of human existence. Everyone who reads this poem can somehow relate to its meaning. Those that are young can associate it to their current lives. They ar
making decisions that will drastically affect the rest of their lives. Those that are older can relate to the end of the poem. The speaker knows he will look back some time in the future and realize the effect the decision had on his or her life. Dec
ion-making is a very important part of living. For the most part, it makes all the difference in the world.
Robert Frost himself declared that his ultimate goal was that of any serious poet: " to lodge a few poems where they will be hard to get rid of ." This he had already done long before he had died (Alteri, 55). Whether in making the great effort hid sal
manship had also lodged a reputation which would be hard to get rid of is yet to be seen.
When one considers that he is a poet pure and simple, the pervasive extent of his fame is somewhat suprising. It certainly matched or surpassed that of the better publicized prose writers, such as F. Scott Fitgerald, William Faulkner, or Ernest Hemingw
. That fame achieved without Frost's being the least bit avant garde or bohemian (Leary, 156). He was never controversial, never summoned before an investigating committee nor in any other sense made notorious. His apparently stormless private life sent
ut no titillating ripples to spice the columns of newspapers or magazines. There are many equally valid meanings to this poem and Robert Frost may have intended this. He may have been trying to achieve a universal understanding. In other words, there is
o judgment, no specificity, no moral. There is simply a narrator who makes a decision in his life that had changed the direction of his life from what it may have otherwise been. It allows all readers from all different experiences to relate to the poem
Abrams, M. H., ed. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol. 1.
New York: Norton, 1993.
Altieri, Charles. Modern Poetry. Arlington Heights, Ill. : AHM Pub. Corp., 1979.
Brocheim, Anna. American Biographies. Durham, N.C. : Duke University Press, 1963.
Houma, Harry. A Critical Approach to Questions of Usage. Language Variation in North American English:Research and Teaching. Ed. A. Wayne Glowka and Donald M. Lance. New York: Modern
LanguageAssociation, 1993. 318-321.
Articles on American Literature : 1950-1967. Compiled by Lewis Leary, with the assistance of Carolyn Bartholet and Catharine Roth. Durham, N.C., Duke University