For a kernel essay the writer writes about a topic, using the text structure as a guide, creating one sentence per box. This collection of sentences is called a kernel essays. The next step is for the writer to read the kernel essay aloud to several listeners to see whether the text structure worked for the topic. For more information see Gretchen Bernabei’s Reviving the Essay.
Below is an example of a text structure and kernel essay about a memory.
Kernel essays can be used for many writing purposes. This includes writing in each content area. Below are a few text structures specifically geared towards content area writing. For an expanded list of disciplinary literacy text structures and possible uses click the following link: Disciplinary Literacy Text Structures
Text Structures for History
Example of a kernel essay in the history classroom:
Text Structures for Science
Example of a kernel essay in the science classroom:
Text Structures for Math
Example of a Kernel Essay in a Math Classroom
Material from Gretchen Bernabei
Kernel Essay Planning Sheet
STAAR Genre Text Structure
Comic Book Text Structures
Science Fair Project Planning Sheet (page 39)
Teacher Blogs About Kernel Essays
Expository Writing: Gretchen Bernabei Style
Teacher Examples of Kernel Essays
...preferably with EXamples...
That's right, today is all about EXpository writing.
Our expository essays follow this frame from Gretchen Bernabei:
Students draw and label this structure almost daily. We deconstruct other author's writing to find these parts. This shows up in the Article of the Week assignment. We dream about these four boxes. I mean, look at them, they are rather dreamy!
Let's face it- we've got 26 lines and limited time. When you look at effective STAAR released essays, they have this basic structure. It comes down to being concise and logical.
To plan, students draw and label the expository structure. They then kernel 4 sentences of their essay. Four sentences, four boxes- you get where I'm going with this. A brilliant colleague came up with these sentence stems to help guide students' thinking:
1. I think...
2. I think this because...
3. I also think this because...
4. That's why...
We work closely with these stems at the beginning of the year. It helps guide thinking and gets words down on paper. Slowly, we move away from them. If you take off the stem, the sentence you are left with sounds much better yet. Better yet, teach students more sophisticated transitions to use. But hey, if one of my struggling writers feels comfortable with the sentence stems and is using them effectively, more power to them!
We also play around with the structure. Our favorite is an anecdote or allusion. Other structures we've tried:
"Here's how this affects me" (R1), "Here's how this affects other" (R2)
"I used to think" (R1), "Now I think" (R2)
Mini rant: I'm a stickler about the line in the Reason 1 and 2 box. Here's why: this is the most likely time and place we'll catch pseudo reasons. For example, True friends are honest (R1) and truthful (R2). At first glance, it's semi-plausible. But upon closer inspection, they're really saying the same thing. That would be a tricky (and ineffective) essay to write. Whew! I'm glad we caught that. (wipes brow)
A mini-lesson on renaming and pitchforks to add detail and this paper should be back in business.
For more expository resources, check out Gretchen's English I remediation packet. It's chock full of goodies that are sequenced to lead you up to test time or that you can break apart and use in your classroom instruction as you see fit.