How to Cite This Site
Jump to: Citing the Constitution
It is very important when writing a paper for a school project (at any level, from elementary school to graduate school) to properly cite your sources. Where did you find your information? Citations are placed in the text as footnotes or endnotes, and/or placed at the end of your work in a bibliography. This page will handle a few different possibilities. The first is to answer the question "How do I cite a page on this site?" or, as I like to say, "How to cite the site."There are two main areas that someone might wish to cite on this site. The first is one of the pages found on the site. Several are simply electronic copies of historical documents, while others are research pages or opinion pages. You should be able to discern which is which pretty easily. Unless the information is a copy of a historical document, and unless otherwise noted, everything here is written by the Webmaster, Steve Mount. Here is a standard way to cite an HTML page published on the Internet, according to the Columbia Guide to Online Style:
- Mount, Steve. "Constitutional Topic: Martial Law." USConstitution.net. 30 Nov 2001. //www.usconstitution.net/consttop_mlaw.html%20(3 Dec 2001)
Specifically, the data is as follows: Author, Title, Site, Modification Date (found at the bottom of every page), URL, and the date the page was accessed. The two dates are critical because of the changeable nature of the Web.
The next citation uses the APA format. This standard comes from the American Psychological Association, and is often used in psychology and other social sciences:
- Mount, S. (2010). Constitutional topic: due process. Retrieved February 23, 2011 from //www.usconstitution.net/consttop_duep.html
Specifically, the data is as follows: Author, Modification Year (found at the bottom of every page), page title, the date the page was accessed, and the URL.
Finally, the MLA style is often used. This style comes from The Modern Language Association. With this style, citations are noted in the text and full references are given in a Works Cited list at the end of the paper.
- Inline: (Mount)
- Works Cited: Mount, Steve. "Constitutional Topic: The Census." USConstitution.net. 3 Jan. 2011. 27 Feb. 2011
Specifically, the data is as follows: Author, Title, Site, Modification Date, thee date the page was accessed, and URL.
The second source of information is this site's Message Boards. The primary information available in the Message Boards is opinion. Because the opinions are those of the posters, the citation of a message needs to include the name or handle of the poster. Here is an example, in the Columbia Style, for a posting from the Classic Boards on this site:
- Ian. "Re: Question regarding Law." 2 Dec 2001. USConstitution.net Q&A Board. //www.usconstitution.net/cgi-bin/wwwbmsg.cgi?const&001280.wwb (3 Dec 2001)
The data is as follows: Poster, Subject, Date Posted, Board Name, URL, and date accessed.
All posts created after November 2003 used the new messaging software. Here is an example for a posting using the new software:
- Andy. "Re: Impeach Scalia?" 5 Feb 2004. Debate Archives. //www.usconstitution.net/yabb/YaBB.cgi?board=debarch;action=display;num=1077548457 (25 Feb 2004)
Citing the U.S. Constitution
Another common question involves how to cite the Constitution itself. There are two forms, a long form and a short form. In a legal document, the short form will suffice in all instances, whereas in a non-legal paper, the long form should be used once, and the short form can be used thereafter.
- "The Constitution of the United States," Article 1, Section 8, Clause 5.
- "The Constitution of the United States," Amendment 5.
- U.S. Const. art. I, § 8, cl. 5.
- U.S. Const. am. 5.
In place of the "§" symbol, the abbreviation "sect." can be used. In a paper dealing primarily with the Constitution, there is no need to mention "U.S. Const."
|Home| |Constitution| |FAQ| |Topics|
|Forums| |Documents| |Timeline| |Kids| |Vermont|
|Map| |Citation| |Survey| |Support|
The Tribunal constitucional, Spain's constitutional court is not considered part of the court system but an independent institution. It is the supreme interpreter of the Constitution, and final defender of human and civil rights.
Its decisions - jurisprudencia constitucional - control the validity of legislation. It issues sentencia, autos and declaraciones, all of which can be found in the Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE, the official gazette). The BOE can be cited in the following manner:
(BOE núm, 16m de 19 de enero de 2011)
Sentencia (judgments) are usually cited according to the formula:
STC [case number]/[yyyy], de [dd] de [month] de [yyyy]
STC 143/2010, de 21 de diciembre [de 2010]
Autos end the proceedings but make no decision on the subject matter. They are cited in the following way:
Auto 1/1980 TC, Sala Segunda, de 11 augusto
|Repertorio Aranzadi del Tribunal Constitucional (1981- )||Spain 100 A10|
|Cuadernos Aranzadi del Tribunal Constitucional||Spain 510 T821.5a|
- El Tribunal Constitucional
Free resource. Offers searchable database of case law - and a selection of decisions translated into English - and a link through to BOE search screen.
- LOTC: Ley organica 2/1979, de 3 de octubre
Free resource. Pdf of Tribunal Constitucional's foundation statute consolidated "con las modificaciones introducidas por las Leyes Orgánicas 8/1984, 4/1985, 6/1988, 7/1999 y 1/2000 y con expresión particularizada de las reformas conforme a las Leyes Orgánicas 6/2007, de 24 de mayo, y 1/2010, de 19 de febrero."
- BOE:Jurisprudencia Constitucional
Official website. Search screen to find decisions of the STC since 1980. Drop down menus. If possible start by filtering Tipo de Resolucion by Auto or Sentencia or Declaracion.
- Judicial review in Spain: the Constitutional Court
Free resource. Enrique Guillén López (Professor of Constitutional Law, University of Granada) Text (in Pdf format) of article published in LOYOLA OF LOS ANGELES LAW REVIEW Vol. 41: Issue 2 (2008) 529.