Research Paper Memory Improvement

At some point you’ve likely heard a student in your introductory science course complain, “I don’t understand what went wrong…I studied a lot for this test, knew all the material, and still got a poor grade on the exam.” While talking with the student, you learn that his studying consisted of hours of reading, rereading, and highlighting the text and class notes a few days before the exam. How do we mentor this student to develop study habits that promote deep, long-lasting conceptual learning rather than surface-level, short-term memorization?

In the book Make it Stick: The Science of Successful Learning, authors Henry Roediger and Mark McDaniel, cognitive scientists specializing in the study of learning and memory, together with novelist Peter Brown, tell engaging stories of how people learn in a way that allows them to successfully apply their knowledge and skills. At the same time, they aptly introduce the scientific evidence for highly-effective learning strategies.

Throughout the book, the authors describe how some commonly-used study strategies are unproductive in the long term and suggest alternative, research-based learning strategies. For example, the student described above used massed practice to cram for an exam by rereading the text soon after the first reading. This gives one the impression of mastery of a subject because the text becomes familiar. In contrast, research indicates that this study method involves short-term memory rather than deep learning. A more beneficial study strategy that is supported by research is retrieval practice, which involves recalling information from memory. To implement this strategy, while reading a text, a student should describe main ideas in his own words, frequently ask questions about what was just read, self-quiz, and attempt to connect new ideas with what was learned previously. Although this recommended approach seems unproductive to the student because it is slower and requires more effort, retrieval practice that is spaced and interleaved (mixed with other topics) involves some forgetting, and the increased cognitive effort required to re-learn leads to higher levels of conceptual learning and application. Teachers can promote retrieval practice by asking questions during class and by implementing frequent announced quizzes. Moreover, if the quizzes are cumulative and include corrective feedback, students will be motivated to continually retrieve previous course concepts, helping with memory.

In addition to intertwining personal stories with relevant research on memory and learning, the authors provide a brief “takeaway” section of key ideas at the conclusion of each chapter as well as notes about the empirical research and references for further reading at the end of the book. The final chapter includes descriptions of instructors who find improvements in student learning from implementing the evidence-based learning strategies in the book, as well as a useful summary of learning tips for students, life-long learners (all of us), teachers, and trainers. For example, the authors recommend that teachers explain to students how people learn, teach students how to study, use frequent announced low-stakes quizzes and practice exercises that include both new and previously covered concepts, and include opportunities for reflection. In addition to clear benefits to the students, these strategies benefit the teacher as students display improved attendance, better class preparation, and improved attention during class. Furthermore, frequent quizzes provide valuable feedback on student performance for the teacher to adjust instruction. Make it Stick is an excellent book on learning and memory, and I recommend it for both teachers and students who want to better understand how learning occurs and how to study effectively.

In many ways, our memories shape who we are. They make up our internal biographies—the stories we tell ourselves about what we've done with our lives. They tell us who we're connected to, who we've touched during our lives, and who has touched us. In short, our memories are crucial to the essence of who we are as human beings.

That means age-related memory loss can represent a loss of self. It also affects the practical side of life, like getting around the neighborhood or remembering how to contact a loved one. It's not surprising, then, that concerns about declining thinking and memory skills rank among the top fears people have as they age.

What causes some people to lose their memory while others stay sharp as a tack? Genes play a role, but so do choices. Proven ways to protect memory include following a healthy diet, exercising regularly, not smoking, and keeping blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood sugar in check. Living a mentally active life is important, too. Just as muscles grow stronger with use, mental exercise helps keep mental skills and memory in tone.

Are certain kinds of "brain work" more effective than others? Any brain exercise is better than being a mental couch potato. But the activities with the most impact are those that require you to work beyond what is easy and comfortable. Playing endless rounds of solitaire and watching the latest documentary marathon on the History Channel may not be enough. Learning a new language, volunteering, and other activities that strain your brain are better bets.

Improving Memory Articles

4 tricks to rev up your memory

Forgetting things from time to time is probably related to either brain changes that come from aging or from underlying conditions. Treating underlying conditions can help boost memory. Other strategies can help, too. Tricks include repeating something out loud to increase the likelihood that information will be recorded and retrieved later when needed; creating a list of errands or appointments to give the brain additional hints to retrieve information; and making associations between old and new information, such as connecting a person’s first name to something familiar. More »

3 easy ways to boost your brain

Studies have indicted that caring for a dog, creating art, and spending time with a grandchild can boost different aspects of memory and reasoning. (Locked)More »

Another way to think about dementia

Vascular dementia is the second most common type of dementia. It often gets confused with normal aging since symptoms can mirror everyday “senior moments,” like forgetting a name or just-learned information. Several factors put people at a greater risk for vascular dementia, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, heart disease, being overweight, and smoking. Making lifestyle changes offers the best protection against the condition.  More »

Study links busy schedules to better cognitive function

Older adults who stay busy scored higher on cognitive function scores compared with more idle people. The greatest effect is with episodic memory, which is the memory of past events like times and places. More »

Do omega-3s protect your thinking skills?

For people who are healthy and who don’t have a decline in memory and thinking skills, it appears that dietary omega-3 fats may help preserve thinking skills. It is unclear if omega-3 fats from fish oil pills offer the same protection. Eating omega-3s in fish may also be linked to a lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease, because omega-3s may help to ease inflammation, maintain a steady heartbeat, and prevent blood clots. Both the federal government and the American Heart Association recommend eating two servings each week of fatty fish such as salmon or mackerel. (Locked)More »

Need to remember something? Exercise four hours later

Research suggests that exercising four hours after learning may improve your memory of the new information. People who exercised four hours after a learning session retained information better than those who exercised immediately after the lesson and those who did not exercise. More »

Reading books may add years to your life

An analysis of records of 5,635 participants in the Health and Retirement Study linked regular book reading with a 20% reduced risk of dying over a 12-year period.  More »

Do we lose memories forever?

Scientists used to assume that memories lost to dementia were permanently lost. Now, some research suggests that memories aren’t lost but are buried deeper in the brain. (Locked)More »

Need a quick brain boost? Take a walk

A 20-to-30-minute bout of moderate exercise before performing mental tasks may quicken reaction speed and sharpen decision making in people of all ages. A dose of caffeine may have similar effects. (Locked)More »

Over-the-counter drugs may be linked to memory decline

A class of drugs commonly used in over-the-counter and prescription drugs to treat such problems as insomnia, diarrhea, high blood pressure, depression, and urinary incontinence may be linked to cognitive impairment. Scientists believe the drugs block the neurotransmitter acetylcholine that helps process information, which scientists believe is responsible for the effect.  More »


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