Higher Biology Dna Replication Essay

DNA replication occurs in a 5'→3' direction.

The first stage of DNA replication in prokaryotes is the uncoiling of the DNA double helix by the enzyme helicase. Helicase separates the DNA into two template strands. RNA primase then adds a short sequence of RNA to the template strands. This short sequence of RNA is a primer which allows DNA polymerase III to bind to the strands and start the replication process. Once this is done, DNA polymerase III adds nucleotides to each template strand in a 5'→3' direction. The nucleotides have 3 phosphate groups and are called deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. Two of these phosphate groups break off during the replication process to release energy. Since the strands are anti-parallel (the two strands have their 5' end and 3' end in opposite sides) and replication can only occur in a 5'→3' direction, one of the strands will be replicated in the same direction as the replication fork and the other will be replicated in the opposite direction of the replication fork. This means that one of the strands is synthesised in a continuous manner (named the leading strand) while the other one is synthesised in fragments (named the lagging strand). The leading strand only needs one primer while the lagging strand needs quite a few as it is formed in fragments. These fragments are called Okazaki fragments. DNA polymerase I will remove the RNA primers and replace these with DNA. The enzyme DNA ligase then joins the Okazaki fragments together to form a continuous strand. 

Summary: 

  1. Helicase uncoils the DNA

  2. RNA primase adds short sequences of RNA to both strands (the primer)

  3. The primer allows DNA polymerase III to bind and start replication

  4. DNA polymerase III adds nucleotides to each template strand in a 5'→3' direction

  5. These nucleotides are initially deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates but they lose two phosphate groups during the replication process to release energy

  6. One strand is replicated in a continuous manner in the same direction as the replication fork (leading strand)

  7. The other strand is replicated in fragments (Okazaki fragments) in the opposite direction (lagging strand) 

  8. DNA polymerase I removes the RNA primers and replaces them with DNA

  9. DNA ligase then joins the Okazaki fragments together to form a continuous strand

DNA replication is initiated at many points in eukaryotic chromosomes.

DNA replication

Stage one

The DNA is unwound and unzipped. The helix structure is unwound. Special molecules break the weak hydrogen bonds between bases, which are holding the two strands together. This process occurs at several locations on a DNA molecule.

Stage two

DNA polymerase adds DNA nucleotides in a 5’ to 3’ direction. Complementary DNA nucleotides are added to the now exposed bases on both strands. Adenine pairs with thymine, thymine with adenine, cytosine with guanine and guanine with cytosine. A primer is needed to start replication.

  1. Leading strand is synthesised continuously. DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the deoxyribose (3’) ended strand in a 5’ to 3’ direction.
  2. Lagging strand is synthesised in fragments. Nucleotides cannot be added to the phosphate (5’) end because DNA polymerase can only add DNA nucleotides in a 5’ to 3’ direction. The lagging strand is therefore synthesised in fragments. The fragments are then sealed together by an enzyme called ligase.

Stage three

The two new strands twist to form a double helix. Each is identical to the original strand.

Step one

Step two

Step three

Step four

Step five

Step six

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